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Chủ Nhật, ngày 14/04/2024

Relationship between agricultural waste and greenhouse gases in Dong Thap Province

10/01/2024

Abstract:

    Based on the assessment of the status of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in each field of agricultural production in Dong Thap Province according to IPPC and related studies, Project has proposed solutions to reduce GHG emissions in each respective field and estimate the effectiveness of GHG emission reduction. The results show that the total GHG emissions in 2021 and 2022 are 8,697.91 and 8,872.88 thousand tons of CO2 equivalent/year; GHG emissions is mainly from farming activities (accounting for 73% to 78%), followed by agricultural waste (16% to 20%), aquaculture (about 6%) and livestock farming (< 1%). However, when applying the proposed solutions, the effectiveness of reducing GHG emissions reaches 73,4%. If afforestation is applied and maintained, Dong Thap Province will continue to reduce GHG emissions by about 80%. Besides, to be effectively and successful in GHG emissions reducing, it is necessary to have financial support from the Government and people's awareness in environmental protection.

Keywords: Dong Thap Province; greenhouse gas emissions; agriculture sector; agricultural waste.

JEL Classification: Q15; Q53; Q56.

Received: 10th September 2023; Revised: 15th October 2023; Accepted: 13th November 2023.

1. INTRODUCTION

    Vietnamese agriculture accounts for about 30 percent of national GHG emissions. The main types of GHG emissions in the agricultural field include CH4, N2O and CO2. Quantifying emissions of each type of GHG in agricultural production show that agricultural activities are also the cause of global climate change.

    In Dong Thap Province, the agricultural sector accounts for about 8.62 percent GRDP, the agricultural land accounts for about 75.39 percent of the natural area of the Province [3]. To be able to evaluate the status of GHG emissions as well as the potential and effectiveness of reducing GHG emissions in agriculture, Dong Thap Province needs to deploy GHG emissions calculations in agricultural production sectors. Estimating GHG emissions can help the Province set quantitative emissions reduction targets in the next period, monitor and evaluate efforts to reduce GHG emissions compared to usual emissions scenarios according to timelines consistent with the national GHG inventory activity.

2. DATA COLLECTION

2.1. Overview of agriculture in Dong Thap Province in 2022 [3]

    Dong Thap Province's agriculture sector has proactively implemented many production transformation solutions to promote growth, ensure food security and bring high economic efficiency to farmers.

    Livestock farming: The Province's livestock industry has prospered, with many large-scale investment projects applying high technology in the form of production chains have been built and operated. The livestock industry is continuing to shift from small-scale farms, not ensuring biosecurity and low efficiency to medium and large-scale farms ensuring biosecurity.

    Fishery: Aquaculture production and fishery catching reached 616.9 thousand tons, an increase of 1.05% compared to 2021, of which aquaculture production reached 596.7 thousand tons, accounting for 96.7%. Aquaculture area is concentrated in Tam Nong, Cao Lanh and Chau Thanh districts.

    Crop production: Total production cereals reached 3,270.5 thousand tons, a decrease of 104.3 thousand tons compared to 2021, of which paddy production reached 3,235 thousand tons, a decrease of 104 thousand tons (Spring paddy production reached 1,384.8 thousand tons, a decrease of 50.2 thousand tons; Autumn paddy production reached 1,850.2 thousand tons, a decrease of 53.8 thousand tons). Perennial crops and fruit crops (oranges, tangerines, mangoes, longans) increased compared with in 2021.

    Pesticides (plant protection chemicals)[13]: Dong Thap province's paddy area ranks third in the country and its fruit tree area is quite large. Therefore, every year, people use many pesticides to prevent pests and diseases. According to the report of Dong Thap Plant Protection and Cultivation Sub-Department, the total amount of fertilizer used is 350,642 tons per year, and pesticides are 8,974 tons per year.

    Fertilizers: Farmers are used to using chemical fertilizers for crops and are not used to using organic fertilizers. The amount of fertilizer used for rice cultivation is gradually decreasing with area; For other crops such as vegetables, corn, potatoes, etc., the amount of fertilizer used gradually increases over cultivated area.

2.2. Agricultural waste

    By-products in farming: According to statistics from the Institute for Agricultural Environment (2018), The amount of by-products from paddy is the largest with over 45 million tons of straw/year, followed by sugarcane with the amount of sheaths and old leaves is over 20 million tons/year, next leaf stalks of corn, cassava plant, vegetables and coffee husks [11]. Agricultural by-products are being left over and burned. They are not used effectively, causing emissions and environmental pollution. With the ratio of straw/paddy is 1.05/1 (Trần Anh Tuấn et al., 2019), the estimated number of straw by-products generated is about 3,396.75 thousand tons in 2022.

    Livestock waste: livestock waste is mainly manure, dead animal carcasses, leftover animal food, bedding materials and other waste, with moisture from 50% to 83% and high NPK ratio. With the emission coefficient referenced from the study of Vũ Chí Cường (2013), the total amount of livestock waste is 1,531.75 tons of solid waste and 1,170 tons of liquid waste.

    Aquaculture waste: Waste in aquaculture is wastewater, sludge... formed mainly from shrimp and fish feces, leftover food, algae, chemicals (lime, zeolite...) used in the farming process, with solid waste generated from shrimp farming is 123 tons/crop/ha and wastewater is more than 5,000 m3/ha, the amount of solid waste generated from pangasius farming is about 33.3 tons of sludge/ha (including mud and water) [4]. Meanwhile, resources for aquatic environmental protection activities (including finance and human resources) are still limited.

3. POTENTIAL GHG EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN DONG THAP PROVINCE

3.1. GHG emissions due to agricultural activities in Dong Thap Province

    In this report, CH4, CO2 and N2O was chosen to calculate the ability emissions in 2021 and 2022 in Dong Thap Province. The GHG emission coefficient is calculated according to the guidance of The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2006), domestic and foreign research related to the field of agriculture and agricultural waste.

3.1.1. GHG emissions in livestock farming

    According to the guidance of IPCC (2006), based on number of livestock, GHG emissions are calculated as follows:

Total CO2 emissions = Number of livestock x emission coefficient x conversion factor

- CH4 emission coefficient from food digestion (intestinal fermentation) of Cow is 27 (kg/head), Pig is 1(kg/head) and Buffalo is 49(kg/head).

- CH4 emission coefficient from waste management process of Cow is 2.4 (kg/head), Pig is 7 (kg/head), Buffalo is 2.8 (kg/head), Poultry is 0.02 (kg/head).

- N2O emission coefficient from waste management process of Cow is 39.59 (kg/head), Pig is 13.49 (kg/head), Buffalo is 44.38 (kg/head), Poultry is 0.02 (kg/head).

Table 1: GHG emissions in livestock activities

Pet type

Number of livestock
(thousands)
[3][10]

CH4 emissions from food digestion

(thousand tons/year)

CH4 emissions from waste management process (thousand tons/year)

N2O emissions from waste management process (thousand tons/year)

 

2021

2022

2021

2022

2021

2022

2021

2022

Cow

37.5

40.8

1.01

1.10

0.09

0.10

1.48

1.62

Pig

90.8

108

0.09

0.11

0.64

0.76

1.22

1.46

Buffalo

2.6

2.7

0.13

0.13

0.01

0.01

0.12

0.12

Poultry

6,841

6,485

-

-

0.14

0.13

-

-

Total

1.23

1.34

0.87

0.99

2.82

3.19

Aerobic treatment

 

 

0.017

0.020

The conversion factor to CO2eq (IPCC, 2013)

28

28

265

CO2eq emissions (thousand tons of CO2eq/ year)

34.46

37.57

24.35

27.75

4.60

5.20

Note: Total GHG emissions from livestock activities in 2021 is 63.41 thousand tons of CO2eq /year, in 2022 is 70.52 thousand tons of CO2eq /year

3.1.2. GHG emissions in aquaculture

- Based on aquaculture area, GHG emissions are calculated as follows:

    CH4 emission coefficient from shrimp, fish is 0.63 kg CH4 /ha.day (Hiraishi et al, 2013), aquaculture time of about 210 days/year for shrimp and 240 days/year for fish.

    CO2 emission coefficient from shrimp, fish is 60.4 ± 1.45 kg CO2/ha/day (Nam, 2016)[6], aquaculture time of about 210 days/year for shrimp and 240 days/year for fish.

- Based on aquaculture production and N2O emission coefficient is 0.00169 kg N2O - N/kg seafood: total N2O emissions = aquaculture production x 0,00169 x 44/28.

Table 2: GHG emissions from aquaculture activities

Types of aquacultures

Aquaculture area (thousand hectares) [3][10]

CH4 emissions (thousand tons/year)

CO2 emissions (thousand tons/year)

N2O emissions (thousand tons/year)

2021

2022

2021

2022

2021

2022

2021

2022

Shrimp

0.9

0.9

0.12

0.12

11.42

11.42

0.005

0.01

Fish

4.8

5.1

0.73

0.77

71.25

71.25

1.49

1.57

Total

0.84

0.89

82.67

87.12

1.50

1.57

The conversion factor to CO2eq (IPCC, 2013)

28

-

265

CO2eq emissions from aquaculture
(thousand tons of CO2eq / year)

23.66

24.93

82.67

87.12

396.97

417.29

*Note: Total GHG emissions from aquaculture activities in 2021 is 503.30 thousand tons of CO2eq /year, in 2022 is 529.34 thousand tons of CO2eq /year

3.1.3. GHG emissions in farming

- Rice cultivation: Estimated CH4 content released into the environment from paddy fields as follows.

Table 3: Estimated CH4 content released into the environment from paddy fields

Rice cultivation

      2021

    2022

Land area for rice cultivation (ha) [3][10]

504,400

482,200

CH4 emission coefficient of 1 ha/year (kg/ha)

382.77

382.77

CH4 content released in rice cultivation (kg/year)

193,069,188

184,571,694

CO2eq emissions from rice cultivation
(thousand tons/year)

5,405.94

5,168.01

- GHG emissions due to fertilizer use: Report calculated for two main types: Urea fertilization and lime;

    Emission coefficient of lime is kg 0.12 kg CO2/kg lime (GL, 2006), average demand of lime 3,1kg/ha, thus CO2 emissions from using lime is 0.37 kg CO2/ha.

    According to research by Chojnacka et al. (2019), the CO2 emission coefficient of urea is 3.47 kg CO2eq/kg Urea, average demand of urea 240kg/ha thus CO2 emissions from using urea is 832.8 kg CO2/ha.

Table 4: GHG emissions from fertilization in farming

Activities use fertilizer

2021

2022

Fertilized area (paddy + other crops) (ha)

541,319[3]

522,899[10]

Emission coefficient (kg CO2/ha)

 

 

+ Lime

0.37

0.37

+ Urea

832.8

832.8

CO2 emissions from fertilizers (thousand tons/year)

 

 

+ Lime

0.2

0.19

+ Urea

450.81

435.47

Total (thousand tons of CO2eq / year)

451.01

435.66

 - GHG emissions from pesticide:

    To calculate emissions from pesticides, it is necessary to estimate the amount of GHG emissions from agricultural pesticide production. Williams et al (2009) [1]used a linear regression method combined with an average energy value of types for pesticide production according to Green (1987), has calculated the global warming potential (100 years) is 0.069 kg CO2eq per MJ of pesticide energy. Total CO2 emissions from specific pesticides are as follows.

Table 5: GHG emissions from pesticides

3.1.4. GHG emissions from agricultural waste

    In currently, no research to calculate GHG emission from waste biomass from farming as well as sludge from aquaculture. Therefore, emission coefficient of garden waste in the composition of domestic waste and wastewater (IPCC, 2006) was applied.

Table 6: GHG emissions in the waste sector in 2021 and 2022

Waste

Unit

2021

2022

CH4

N2O

Total

CH4

N2O

Total

Disposal of solid waste into landfills

Thousand tons of CO2eq /year

1,389.61

-

1,389.61

1,815.62

-

1,815.62

Wastewater (untreated)

Thousand tons of CO2eq /year

6.43

0.65

7.08

5.29

0.74

6.03

Total

1,396.04

0.65

1,396.69

1,820.91

0.74

1,821.65

3.2. Synthesize and compare GHG emission calculation results

Table 7: Summary of GHG emissions in the agricultural field in 2021, 2022

Sector

GHG in 2021

(thousand tons of CO2eq /year)

GHG in 2021

(thousand tons of CO2eq /year)

CO2

CH4

N2O

Total

CO2

CH4

N2O

Total

Livestock farming

-

58.81

4.60

63.41

-

65.32

5.20

70.52

Farming (rice growing, fertilizers, pesticides)

877.76

5865.75

-

6734.51

847.89

5603.48

-

6451.37

Aquaculture

82.67

23.66

396.96

503.3

87.12

24.93

417.29

529.34

Agricultural waste

 

1,396.04

0.65

1396.69

-

1820.91

0.74

1821.65

Total

960.43

7335.26

402.22

8697.91

935.01

7514.64

423.23

8872.88

  Figure 1: GHG emission rate in the agricultural sector in 2021 and 2022

Note: GHG emissions are mainly from farming activities accounting for 73% to 77%, followed by agricultural waste generation activities, accounting for 16% to 20%, emissions from aquaculture are low and livestock farming has the lowest proportion.

4. PROPOSED SOLUTIONS

4.1. Solutions to reduce emissions in farming

  • For rice cultivation

    Applying the Alternate Wet and Dry paddy planting technique (AWD): Paddy fields are watered intermittently except for the rooting and flowering stages to reduce the time of flooding, which will reduce CH4 emissions approximately 51% compared to the traditional [9]. However, this solution requires quite a large investment cost for irrigation pumping systems and dikes; therefore, if the government does not support, it will not be attractive to farmers

    Converting land from 2 to 3 paddy crops to 1 paddy crop and 1 vegetable crop: The conversion has contributed to reducing the GHG rate by 25% [9]. This is also a solution has been applied in some localities and has potential to be replicated because it brings higher economic efficiency than specialized rice cultivation. However, this solution requires specific planning on land, markets and investment costs to renovate irrigation systems and processing facilities.

    Reuse 100% of biomass waste from farming activities: limit burning of waste biomass and completely reuse them, such as composting from straw to fertilize plants and produce fuel from husk, waste from fruit trees is fermented to produce feed containing probiotics for livestock.

Solutions to reduce emissions in managing and using fertilizers and pesticides

    Use fertilizers appropriately: There should be specific recommendations on using fertilizers for soil, should not fertilize too much urea, leading to high NOx concentrations in the soil, that causing direct and indirect emissions of N2O, NOx, NH3 and GHG effects; should use slow-release Nitrogen to reduce nitrogen loss when fertilizing plants, while also helping to reduce GHG emissions into the environment. At the same time, people could use garden waste, sewage sludge and other organic waste from agriculture to compost, create organic fertilizer. According to the project "Sustainable paddy production and reduction of GHG emissions AgResults", using organic fertilizer in rice cultivation has helped cut 50% of GHG emissions into the environment.

    Using biosafe pesticides, which are currently encouraged, including herbal pesticides and microbial pesticides...

+ Herbal pesticides: A type of pesticide that uses toxins which was extracted from plants or vegetable oils to inhibit and kill pests, such as: Neem tree juice (kill pests and aphids), solution from chili, garlic, ginger (kill pests and insects), Chrysanthemum tea (kill endothermic animal, insects and invertebrates), solution from nicotiana rustica (kills pests, butterfly pupae, aphids and mollusks such as slugs), millettia pachyloba drake (kill Taiwania circumdata, Empoasca sp., and  mango hopper).

+ Microbial pesticides: active ingredients include microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, algae or protozoa, which excrete fluids containing antibiotics, capable of eliminate pests. This bacterium secretes proteins that help repel insects to protect plants, especially potatoes and cabbage. Other types of microbial pesticides use the principle of competition for survival, bringing non-harmful microorganisms to plants and being natural enemies of harmful microorganisms to take over the habitat and repel micro-organisms from plants.

    According to the results of the model "Rice cultivation reduces GHG emissions", the "1 right - 6 reduction" technical process has reduced the number of pesticides used in paddy fields by 30%.

    Provide land management policies: It is necessary to advise people to manage well cropland, keep clear soil, avoid flooding, clean up plant and animal residues, and apply properly manure to limit decomposing nitrogen into GHGs by bacteria.

    Although many solutions to reduce GHG emissions in the agricultural field have been researched and proposed; However, the applicability and replication of each technology depends largely on the economic efficiency that the technology can bring to farmers in addition to its environmental efficiency. Therefore, the government needs to have supportive policies to continue researching these solutions in each specific area to ensure that people continue to apply and replicate GHG emission reduction technologies in agriculture.

Maintain forest ecology

    Tree planting activities will increase the ability to absorb CO2 and help exploit and use 100% of biomass from forests... so afforestation will be highly effective in reducing GHG emissions. Applying the calculation of GHG emissions according to IPCC (2006), the amount of CO2 will be reduced by about -544.60 thousand tons of CO2/year (2022).

Table 8: GHG emissions from forest ecosystems in 2022

No

Planting forests

Unit

2022

I

The amount of C absorbed

 

 

1

Forest land area (including forestry land and land for perennial crops) [3][10] (A)

Thousand hectares

54

2

Ratio C of dry matter (CF)

ton C/ton dry

0.47

3

Average annual biomass growth (G total)

Dry tons/ha/year

188.49

4

CO2 absorption and emission from intact forest land with respect to annual increase (C gain = A x G Total x CFx (-44/12))

Thousand tons of CO2 /year

-691.13

II

Amount of C lost

 

 

5

Wood yield (H)

Thousand m3/year

120.7

6

Biomass conversion factor into expansion factor (BCEF R)

(m3 loss)-1

10

7

Ratio of below ground biomass to above-ground biomass (R)

(dry tons of above-ground biomass) -1

0.2

8

Annual loss carbon due to tree loss (Lwood-removals = H x BCEF R x (1 + R) x CF)

Thousand tons of CO2 /year

68.25

9

Volume of firewood lost (FG trees)

m3 /year

 

10

Base wood density (D)

Dry tons/m3

6.8

11

Annual loss carbon due to wood collection (L wood-removals = [FG trees x BCEF R x (1 + R) + EG part x D) x CF)

Thousand tons of CO2 /year

78.28

12

Amount of C lost due to intervention (L other losses)

Thousand tons of CO2 /year

0.00

 

Total loss (8+11+12) (C loss)

Thousand tons of CO2 /year

146.53

 

-544.60

4.2. Solutions to reduce emissions in livestock farming

    CH4 emissions from the rumen of cattle: There should be a program to provide nutritional cakes or other nutritional products to reduce the amount of methane produced from the digestive activities of cattle. According to Van Zijderveld et. al. (2011), digestive products could convert nitrate into NH3, reducing CH4 production in the cow's rumen by up to 50%.

    Model for utilizing by-products from livestock farming:

+ Model of utilizing livestock waste to produce organic fertilizer and biogas as cooking fuel; treating livestock wastewater with a biogas tank not only reduces odors but also collects gas for cooking.

+ Model of utilizing animal manure to raise earthworms: Cow manure, pig manure and fillers such as grass, straw, water hyacinth, potato plants, peanut stems... or dry leaves are used as a substrate for earthworm farming. Cinnamon is used to produce organic food, anaerobic decomposition creates biogas, and produces bioenergy.

4.3. Solutions to reduce emissions in aquaculture

    Pond wastewater treatment: recirculating water in aquaculture to reduce eutrophication is a sustainable method to reduce environmental impact by both reducing wastewater discharge and helping to control disease. This solution contributes to reducing the eutrophication rate compared to traditional farming by 43.66% - 47.13% [12]

    Treatment of sludge from aquaculture ponds

+ Sludge from ponds is used to fertilize agricultural land. Currently, pond areas use settling ponds to remove suspended solids in waste quite effectively; however, it is necessary to have attention to the residue of dissolved nutrients in the waste source. .

+ Phosphorus recovery: Current trends show that phosphorus resource regeneration is mainly implemented to reduce operating costs. Nutrient recovery is recognized to help control fouling in the sludge pipeline, improve sludge dewatering, reduce polymer consumption, treatment sludge volume, energy recovery. At the same time, with demanding high livestock farming and lacking land area for sludge treatment can be solved thanks to Phosphorus recovery techniques.

+ Nitrogen recovery: The main goal of nitrogen recovery (reactive Nitrogen recovery) is to shorten the nitrogen cycle and convert Nitrogen in the waste stream into artificial fertilizer (precursor form). About 30% of the Nitrogen in the waste stream, representing 4% of the nitrogen in the wastewater, can be recovered. Although Nitrogen recovery less than agricultural fertilizer needs, but Nitrogen recovery can be part of a sustainable solution.

Table 9: Estimated GHG emissions reduction from agricultural activities 

Emissions

GHG reduction plan
(% GHG reduction)

Calculate GHG emissions in 2022

Initial GHG emissions
(thousand tons of CO2eq/year)

Applying mitigation options
(thousand tons of CO2eq / year)

Forest ecosystem
(thousand tons of  CO2eq/ year)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

I. Cultivation

Rice Cultivation

+ Planting alternate wet and dry paddy (reduce 51%)

+ Plant rotation of 1 rice crop and 1arable crop (reduce 25%)

5,168.01

1,240.32

- 544.60

Fertilizer

Use organic fertilizer from agricultural by-products (reduce 50%)

435.66

217.83

Pesticides

Herbal pesticides, microbial pesticides (reduce 30%)

847.70

593.39

II. Livestock farming

Castle raising

Using digestive products to reduce CH4 emissions from food digestion (reduce 50%)

65.32

32.66

Waste management

Collect biogas to generate electricity and reduce CH4, N2O emissions from waste management (reduce 100%)

5.20

0

III. Aquaculture

Aquaculture activities

+ Closed circular model (reduce 47.13%)

+ Recover P, N (reduce 30%)

529.34

279.86

IV. Agricultural waste

Solid waste and wastewater

+ Production compost from crop waste and livestock waste (reduce 100%)

Collect biogas to generate electricity and reduce CH4, N2O emissions from waste management (reduce 100%)

1,821.65

0

Total

8872.88

2364.07

-544.60

Total GHG reduction (3) - (4)

6508.82

 

Note: The efficiency of reducing GHG emissions is about 73,4%. When applying and maintaining afforestation, GHG emissions will be reduced to about 80%.

5. Conclusion

    The report analyzed and evaluated the situation and trends of GHG emissions in each field of agricultural production and agricultural waste, thereby providing analysis and assessment of opportunities and challenges for reducing GHG emissions in Dong Thap Province. The potential to reduce GHG emissions in the agricultural sector is huge. However, the biggest challenge comes from limited funding to invest in waste reduction technology; in addition to the awareness, consciousness, responsibility to protect the environment and reduce GHG emissions of local people are still limited.

    Specific measures to reduce GHG emissions for each type of agricultural production in Dong Thap Province are as follows: Review and issue technical guidance documents on GHG inventory for departments and relevant units to refer to before implementing contents on GHG emission mitigation in agriculture; Expand cooperation with strategic partners such as C40 Organization, JICA, World Bank.... to seek funding sources; issue handbooks to guide actions to reduce GHGs in each production fields in agriculture.

Nguyễn Văn Phước1Nguyễn Trần Thu Hiền2, Ngô Thụy Phương Hiếu2, Nguyễn Thị Thu Hiền2

1 Ho Chi Minh City Union of Science and Technology Associations

Ho Chi Minh City Association for Water and Environment 

(Source: The article was published on the Environment Magazine by English No. IV/2023)

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