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Chủ Nhật, ngày 26/06/2022

Control of air pollutant emissions from road motor vehicles

20/05/2021

    Road motor vehicles, including cars, motorcycles and motorbikes are one of the main emission sources for several air pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and other toxins like benzene... Such air pollutants are mainly distributed in urban areas that directly affect people's health and contribute to about 22.6% of CO2 causing the greenhouse effect. Recently, the Ministry of Transport (MOT) has developed and implemented a range of policies to enhance the improvement of air quality. Currently, in Việt Nam, the control of air pollutant emissions from road motor vehicles has been conducted synchronously from the stages of manufacturing, assembling, and importing to the stage of emission control of vehicles in circulation.

 Control of air pollutant emissions from new manufactured, assembled, and imported road motor vehicle

    The control of air pollutant emissions from manufactured, assembled and imported road motor vehicles have been implemented since 2007 under Decision No. 249/2005/QD-TTg of the Prime Minister. Accordingly, for motor vehicles that are manufactured, assembled, or imported as brand - new ones, the emission standard limit according to the Vietnamese standard equivalent to the Euro 2 limit must be applied from January 1st, 2007. As a result, the control has created technical barriers to prevent the backward road motor vehicles that generate high emissions and cause environmental pollution.  

    Subsequently, the MOT assessed the results of the implementation of Decision No. 249/2005/QD-TTg and then submitted to the Prime Minister to promulgate the Decision No. 49/2011/QD-TTg dated September 1st, 2011, providing the roadmap for application of exhaust emission standards to manufactured, assembled and imported brand-new cars and motorbikes. Under this Decision, motorbikes are subject to level-3 exhaust emission standards and cars using petrol and other fuels except for diesel oil are subject to level-4 exhaust emission standards from January 1st, 2017.  Besides, cars using diesel oil are subject to level-4 exhaust emission standards from January 1st, 2018. Manufactured, assembled and imported brand-new cars are subject to level-5 exhaust emission standard from January 1st, 2022.

    In comparison with other ASEAN countries, only Singapore has applied Euro -6 limits since 2017. Thailand and Indonesia issued the roadmap in which the Euro-5 limits would be applied from 2022 and 2030 respectively. Nevertheless, in the recent Regional Conference on Harmonization of Standards, both two countries postponed their deadlines without specific time. It can be seen that the application of the level-5 exhaust emission standard from January 1st, 2022, demonstrates the Vietnamese Government's commitment to reducing pollutant emissions, protecting the environment and the people’s health.

Control of air pollutant emissions from in-service and imported second-hand road motor vehicle

    According to the Prime Minister’s Decision No. 249/2005/QD-TTg, the control of air pollutant emissions from in-service and imported second-hand road motor vehicles has been implemented for cars since 2006. The implementation of the Decision has contributed to the raising awareness and responsibility of the owners of vehicles in the maintenance to reduce air pollutant emissions when using.

    To enforce Decision No.985a/QD-TTg dated June 1, 2016 of the Prime Minister approving the National Action Plan on the management of air quality, MOT assessed results and submitted to the Prime Minister to issue Decision No.16/2019/QD-TTg dated March 28th, 2019 providing the roadmap for application of exhaust emission standards to in-service and imported second-hand cars. Accordingly, the permitted maximum emission limits are higher than that are stipulated in Decision No. 249/2005/ QD-TTg.

Table 1. Permitted maximum emission limits of road motor vehicles

Pollutants in the exhaust gas

Vehicles fitted with spark-ignition engines

Vehicles fitted with compression ignition engines

 

Automobiles

Motorcycles

 

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Level   4

Level 1

Level 2

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4

CO

(% volume)

4.5

3.5

3.0

0.5

0.3 (3)

4.5

-

-

-

 

HC

(ppm volume)

4-stroke engine

 

2-stroke engine

 

Special engines (1) 

 

 

1200

 

7800

 

3300

 

 

800

 

7800

 

3300

 

 

600

 

7800

 

3300

 

 

   300

200 (3)

7800

 

3300

 

 

1500

 

10000

 

 

1200

 

7800

 

 

 

 

Lamas (λ)

 

 

 

0.97-1.03 (3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Smoke opacity (% HSU) (2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

72

60

50

45

1) Special engines include Wankel engines and a number of other engines with special structures different from those of piston engines which are widely used.

2) The smoke opacity limit may also be determined from light absorption coefficient values ​​(m- 1) equivalent to the above opacity values. 

3) Apply the accelerated idle speed measurement procedure according to TCVN 6204:2008 (ISO 3929: 2003).

                       
 

Roadmap for application of emission standard limits to in-service automobiles:

    For in-service automobiles which are fitted with spark-ignition engines or compression ignition engines and manufactured before 1999, level-1 must be continued to apply.

   For in-service automobiles which are fitted with spark-ignition engines or compression ignition engines and manufactured from 1999 to 2008, level-2 must be applied from January 1st, 2021.

   For in-service automobiles which are fitted with spark-ignition engines or compression ignition engines and manufactured after 2008, level-2 must be applied from January 1st, 2020.

    Roadmap for application of emission standard limits to imported second-hand automobiles: For imported second-hand automobiles which are fitted with spark-ignition engines or compression ignition engines, level-4 must be applied from the effective date of Decision No.16/2019/QD-TTg.

    To implement the Prime Minister's Decision No.16/2019/QD-TTg, MOT has directed their agencies and units to supplement and revise the regulations on safety inspection and environmental protection for in-service automobiles; improving the qualifications and equipment of the registry units; integrating the updated emission standard limits and the application roadmaps into the inspection procedures; propagating and disseminating the application roadmaps to automobiles importers, owners, and drivers; organizing and mobilizing resources for research and pilot application of emission treatment technologies to develop mechanisms and policies, and to finalize the system of standards and technical regulations and improve the efficiency of management of air pollutant emission from in-service motor vehicles. At present, MOT has adopted the application of emission standard limits to in-service and imported second-hand automobiles in accordance with laws.

Control of air pollutant emissions from in-service mopeds and motorcycles

    It has witnessed rapid growth in the number of motorcycles and mopeds. Due to their specific use, motorcycles and mopeds have become one of the main sources of environmental pollution, especially in big cities. Consequently, the control of the circulation, as well as the emission from such kinds of vehicles, has become a serious concern of many big cities, namely Hà Nội and Hồ Chí Minh City.

     To perform the tasks assigned by the Prime Minister in Decision No. 909/QD-TTg dated June 17th, 2010 approving the scheme of controlling exhaust emissions of in-service motorcycles and mopeds, in 2016, MOT elaborated and submitted to the Prime Minister the regulations on emission control for in-service motorcycles in big cities. On the other hand, the control of the exhaust emission from in-service motorcycles and mopeds need to be associated with the regulations on the inspection of exhaust emission for motorcycles and mopeds. This content has not been specified in the Law on Road Traffic 2008. As a result, on January 19th, 2017, the Prime Minister issued Document No. 566/VPCP-CN requesting MOT to continue researching regulations on the application of emission standard limits and regulations on emission inspection for motorcycles and mopeds in the development of the revised Law on Road Traffic. On the basis of the provisions of the Law, MOT builds a roadmap for emission inspection for motorcycles and mopeds and implement it nationwide.

Energy labeling for new manufactured, assembled and imported road motor vehicle

    To comply with the regulations on economical and efficient use of energy, MOT has issued and implemented the regulations on energy labeling for new manufactured, assembled and imported passenger cars up to 9 seats, motorcycles, and mopeds. Accordingly, such types of vehicles, before put on sale, must declare their fuel consumption according to three levels, including in urban cycle, in a rural cycle, and a combined cycle.

    From January 1st, 2015, consumers based on the energy label that indicates the information on fuel consumption of the automobile can choose modern technology and fuel-saving automobiles. Consequently, the consumers probably save their money during their use of automobiles.  

    In particular, the checking and testing of fuel consumption and certification of energy labeling of automobiles are done in combination with the testing of emission that not to generate cost or administrative procedure for certifying the fuel consumption level for the automobile manufacturers and importers.

Vũ Hải Lưu

Department of Environment, Ministry of Transport

(Source: Vietnam Environment Administration Magazine, English Edition I - 2021)

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