Since Việt Nam undertook the Reforms in 1986 up to now, through the National Congresses of the Party, the Party's awareness and viewpoints on the market economy and the socialist-oriented market economy institution have been built and perfected to meet the development requirements of the country through each period. In the 12th Party Congress, the Party insisted on the way of economic development based on the model of socialist-oriented market economy. In particular, one of the defined key tasks is "continuing to effectively implement three strategic breakthroughs, in which perfection of the socialist-oriented market economy institution is a critical target".
In order to match the general orientation and objectives of the Party on perfecting the market economy institution for the sectors of natural resources management (NRM), environmental protection (EP) and climate change response (CCR), it is necessary to continue to innovate management based on the application of rules, principles and measures of the market economy in these areas.
Market economy institution in NRM, EP and CCR
Market economy institution in NRM, EP and CCR includes: The system of legal regulations, mechanisms and policies on natural resource management, environmental protection and climate change response issued by state competent agencies to create a legal framework for the formation and development of market factors, market and activities of market entities; regulating the behavior of entities on the basis of respecting the principles and rules of the market economy; System of organizational structure, human resources, coordination and enforcement mechanisms of the State for planning, managing and monitoring policies and Laws on NRM, EP and CCR; System of socio-political and socio-professional organizations working with the role of scrutinizing and monitoring enforcement of Laws, policies and protecting the legitimate rights and interests of the people and the entities of the market in related matters.
The roles of the State in NRM, EP and CCR include: Building, enforcing and perfecting the legal system, policy mechanisms to perform the function of state management of natural resources, environment and climate change; Orienting, creating environment, initiating and creating momentum to form and operate market factors, market types in the sectors of NRM, EP and CCR towards equality, transparency and soundness; Effectively allocating resources, orienting and regulating activities of finding, extracting and using natural resources in a sustainable manner; mobilizing the participation of the whole society in EP and CCR in the market economy; The State is both the management entity and the entity participating in market relationships, all regulating activities must comply with the principles and rules of the market economy; The market plays a key role in mobilizing, allocating and effectively using resources for NRM, EP and CCR in the economy.
Promoting the role of socio-political organizations in NRM, EP and CCR
The Vietnam Fatherland Front (VFF) and socio-political organizations play a role in protecting the legitimate rights and interests of the people; gathering and promoting the strength of the great national unity, implementing democracy, strengthening social solidarity and criticism in NRM, EP and CCR.
Achievements, limitations and their causes in the context development of NRM, EP and CCR in Việt Nam
Over the past time, with the application of the market economy institution in NRM, EP and CCR in Việt Nam, there are achievements as follows: Market access in NRM, EP and CCR becomes the main trend and has been increasingly improved; Types of market in the sectors of NRM, EP and CCR are initially formed, operated and developed; The state has promoted its role in NRM, EP and CCR in accordance with the requirements and practical development of the economy such as allocation and use of natural resources for economic development; starting to use market-based tools in NRM, EP and CCR; The system of organizational apparatus and human resources for state management of natural resources, environment and climate change is increasingly improved and in line with the requirements of the market economy institution; System of information and data on natural resources, environment and climate change has been completed, a number of sectors are considering the trend of the industrial revolution 4.0 and the digital economy era; The role of the Vietnam Fatherland Front and socio-political organizations has been promoted and made certain contributions.
Limitations and their causes
Comparison of the practice of building and perfecting the socialist-oriented market economy institution with the requirements of the basic principles of market economy, the sectors of NRM, EP and CCR still exist limitations that need to be overcome, including:
First, the legal system and policy mechanisms on NRM, EP and CCR have not met the requirements of the modern market economy institution and international integration; yet to have breakthroughs in mobilizing resources, especially from non-state sectors.
Second, market factors and market relationships have not been established synchronously, in the sectors of NRM, EP and CCR, market competitiveness is weak, lack of transparency and low efficiency. The prices of land, resources and services on natural resources and environment have not yet met the principles of the market economy, most of which are still issued by administrative decisions, so the pricing in the sectors of natural resources and environment in the market has not yet reflected the real value, and are not in accordance with the rules of the market.
Third, the State's role in NRM, EP and CCR has not been fully promoted Method of allocating and using land and natural resources for socio-economic development still bears the imprint of the central planning mechanism. The role of the State in building, supporting the development, monitoring and regulating market levels, market types are still weak and lack of information, resulting in budget revenue loss and speculation in land and resources.
Fourth, the position, role and functions of the VFF and the socio-political organizations have not been fully promoted in scrutinizing and supervising the implementation of legal policies, mobilizing resources and protecting legitimate rights and interests of people and businesses in the issues of NRM, EP and CCR.
Viewpoints, objectives, tasks and solutions to perfect the market economy institution in NRM, EP and CCR in Việt Nam
Perfecting the market economy institution in NRM, EP and CCR in Việt Nam needs to be based on the following viewpoints, targets, tasks and solutions:
First, on the viewpoint of perfecting the market economy institution in NRM, EP and CCR: This is an objective requirement to create new driving forces for the country in a swift and sustainable manner; improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the NRM, EP and proactively responding to climate change; Barriers of the legal system, mechanisms and policies need to be reviewed and removed; capacity of organizational system, human resources of the natural resources and environment sector need to be improved; People and businesses are the focus of the process of perfecting the market economy institution in NRM, EP and CCR. The state plays a role in facilitating the development; Stability, sustainability of the country, solidarity, promotion of national synergy, maintaining the independence, security and territorial integrity need to be paid attention to.
Second, the overall objective must be "perfecting of the legal policy system, strengthening the capacity of organizational structure, innovating the direction and administration methods to improve the effectiveness and efficiency in NRM, EP and CCR in accordance with the Party's viewpoints and orientations, Việt Nam's practical conditions to perfect the socialist-oriented market economy institution, contributing to creating new driving forces for the country to develop in a swift and sustainable manner”.
Third, the tasks and solutions need to focus to achieve the objectives and meet the viewpoints on perfection of the market economy institution in NRM, EP and CCR, including: To strengthen research, thoroughly grasp and unification of the awareness of perfecting the market economy institution in NRM, EP and CCR. To promote communications, advocacy to create consensus among levels, sectors and the whole society on the market economy institution and the need to perfect the market economy institution in NRM, EP and CCR; perfecting the legal system, mechanisms and policies to ensure synchronous development, transparency of market factors, market levels in the field of NRM, EP and CCR; Renovating the role of the State in the orientation and effective allocation of NRM, EP and CCR in the market economy; Strengthening the role of market-based tools, financial mechanisms to regulate, promote, reasonably extract and use natural resources, EP and CCR; addressing market imperfections. Consistently implementing market principles plays a key role and taking competition as a driving force, economic efficiency is the target; perfecting the organizational system, human resources in the natural resources and environmental sector, enforcement and monitoring mechanisms to meet the requirements of the market economy institution.
Fourth, promoting the role of the VFF and the socio-political organizations in NRM, EP and CCR in accordance with the market economy institution in Việt Nam.
General, perfecting the market economy institution in NRM, EP and CCR should be considered as one of the key tasks that need to be implemented synchronously for the natural resources and environmental sectors to contribute to the country's rapid and sustainable development in the new context.
(This article was puplished on the Environment Magazine, Enghish I/2019)